The World Almanac E-Newsletter

Volume 3, Number 4 - April 2003



What's in this issue?

April Events
Holidays - National and International
This Day in History - April
April Birthdays
Featured Location of the Month: Nashville, TN
Obituaries - March 2003
Special Feature: An Overview of the Department of Homeland Security
Science in the News
Chronology - Events of March 2003
Offbeat News Stories
Noted Personalities from The World Almanac: Original Names of Selected Entertainers
Links of the Month
How to Reach Us

April Events

April 3-6 - Mule Day (Columbia, TN)
April 5 - Elmira (Ontario) Maple Syrup Festival
April 6 - Daylight Savings Time begins in the U.S.
April 6-12 - National Library Week
April 7 - Pulitzer Prizes announced; NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Championship (New Orleans, LA)
April 7-13 - Masters golf tournament (Augusta, GA)
April 8 - NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Championship (Atlanta, GA)
April 10-13 - French Quarter Festival (New Orleans, LA); Scottsdale (AZ) Culinary Festival
April 11-22 - Edinburgh (Scotland) International Science Festival
April 13 - Jimmy Stewart Relay Marathon (Los Angeles, CA): London Marathon
April 19-27 - Fiesta San Antonio (TX); Historic Garden Week in Virginia
April 20-26 - World's Biggest Fish Fry (Paris, TN)
April 21 - Boston Marathon; White House Easter Egg Roll
April 21-27 - Canada Book Week
April 24 - Take Our Daughters and Sons to Work Day
April 25-27 - Daffodil Festival (Nantucket Island, MA); Pompano Beach (FL) Seafood Festival
April 26-27 - NFL Draft (New York, NY)
April 27-May 3 - National Volunteer Week
April 30-May 4 - Sunfest (West Palm Beach, FL)

April Holidays

April 1 - April Fool's Day
April 2 - International Children's Book Day
April 7 - World Health Day
April 8 - Birthday of the Buddha
April 10 - National D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) Day; Sibling's Day
April 13 - Palm Sunday
April 17 - Passover (1st full day)
April 18 - Good Friday
April 20 - Easter
April 21 - Easter Monday (Canada, United Kingdom); Patriot's Day
April 22 - Earth Day
April 23 - Administrative Professionals Day
April 27 - Orthodox Easter
April 29 - Holocaust Remembrance Day


International phone traffic increased from 33 billion minutes in 1990 to 135 billion in 2002.

This Day in History - April






Union forces defeat Confederate troops at Five Forks, VA, in the last decisive battle of the Civil War.



Argentina invades the nearby Falkland Islands, a British colony.



The first Pony Express run begins when a rider leaves St. Joseph, MO, bound for Sacramento, CA



A treaty is signed authorizing NATO.



Russell Henderson pleads guilty in the 1998 beating death of gay student Matthew Shepard.



After a lapse of 1,500 years, the first modern Olympic Games open in Athens, Greece.



The World Health Organization is established by the UN.



In World War II, the Japanese take Bataan.



The Civil War ends when Gen. Robert E. Lee surrenders 27,800 Confederate troops to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, VA.



Allied troops enter and liberate the Buchenwald concentration camp near Weimar, Germany.



Jessica Dubroff, a 7-year-old trying to become the youngest person ever to pilot a plane across the nation, is killed when her plane crashes in Cheyenne, WY.



Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt dies at age 63 in Warm Springs, GA; Harry S. Truman becomes president.



Huguenots are granted religious tolerance when Henry IV of France promulgates the Edict of Nantes.



Two days after his ouster in a bloodless coup by the military, Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chavez returns to office.



The first McDonald's opens, in Des Plaines, IL.



The U.S. Commerce Dept. approves the granting of patents for new genetic forms of animal life.



The Polish government grants legal status to the Solidarity labor union.



Much of the U.S. embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, is destroyed by a bomb, killing at least 60.



A 51-day siege of the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, TX, ends when the compound burns down, leaving more than 70 cult members dead.



Chicago's Wrigley Field opens with a Cubs victory.



Gen. Sam Houston's Texans defeat the Mexicans in the Battle of San Jacinto, winning Texas its independence.



Armed U.S. Immigration agents stage predawn raid to seize 6-year-old Cuban refugee Elán González from his Miami relatives and reunite him with his father.



Physicists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory announce evidence of the top quark, the last such undiscovered subatomic particle.



Congress passes an act to establish the Library of Congress.



In accordance with the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty, the last Israeli soldiers withdraw from the Sinai peninsula.



South Africa begins holding multiparty elections in which blacks are allowed to vote for the first time in the nation's history.



While circumnavigating the globe, explorer Ferdinand Magellan is killed by natives in the Philippines.



Wealthy business Dennis Tito becomes the first tourist in space after paying the Russian Space Agency up to $20 million for a trip to the International Space Station.



The United States begins evacuating Americans and some South Vietnamese from Saigon as Communist forces complete their takeover of South Vietnam.



Tennis player Monica Seles is stabbed in the back by a spectator at a tournament in Germany.

April Birthdays






David Eisenhower, author, grandson of Pres. Dwight Eisenhower, and son-in-law of Pres. Richard Nixon (West Point, NY)



Buddy Ebsen, actor (Belleville, IL)



Helmut Kohl, former German chancellor (Ludwigshafen, Germany)



Elizabeth Wilson, actress (Grand Rapids, MI)



Colin Powell, secretary of state (New York, NY)



Zach Braff, actor (South Orange, NJ)



Ravi Shankar, musician (Benares, India)



Patricia Arquette, actress (New York, NY)



Cynthia Nixon, actress (New York, NY)



Harry Morgan, actor (Detroit, MI)



Oleg Cassini, fashion designer (Paris, France)



Ann Miller, actress/dancer (Houston, TX)



Lanford Wilson, writer (Lebanon, MO)



Loretta Lynn, country singer (Butcher Hollow, KY)



Emma Thompson, actress (London, England)



Edie Adams, singer/actress (Kingston, PA)



Sean Bean, actor (Sheffield, Yorkshire, England)



Hayley Mills, actress (London, England)



Ashley Judd, actress (Los Angeles, CA)



John Paul Stevens, Supreme Court justice (Chicago, IL)



Don Mattingly, baseball player (Evansville, IN)



Reese Witherspoon, actress (Nashville, TN)



Warren Spahn, baseball pitcher (Buffalo, NY)



Sue Grafton, mystery writer (Louisville, KY)



Renee Zellweger, actress (Katy, TX)



Carol Burnett, actress/comedian (San Antonio, TX)



Earl Anthony, champion bowler (Tacoma, WA)



Harper Lee, author (Monroeville, AL)



Eve Plumb, actress (Burbank, CA)



Isiah Thomas, basketball player (Chicago, IL)


A group of bears is known as a "sleuth."


Location: Also Nashville-Davidson; capital of Tennessee, coextensive with Davidson County, a port of entry on the Cumberland River, in the northern central part of the state; incorporated 1806. Since 1963 Nashville and Davidson County have had a single government.

Known worldwide as the center of country and western music, Nashville has been the site of the Grand Ole Opry radio show since 1925. Nashville is also known as the "Athens of the South."

Population (2000 Census): 569,891

Mayor: Bill Purcell (Non-Partisan)

April Temperatures: Normal high of 70.8 degrees Fahrenheit; Normal low of 47.5 degrees Fahrenheit

Colleges & Universities: Belmont University, Fisk University, Free Will Baptist Bible College, Lipscomb University, Meharry Medical College, Nashville State Technical Institute, Tennessee State University, Trevecca Nazarene University, Vanderbilt University

Events: Songwriter's Symposium 2003 (April 4-5); Big Boy Toy Show (April 5-6); GMA 2003 Gospel Music Association Week (April 6-10); Nashville Blues Extravaganza (April 6); 34th Annual Dove Awards (April 10); Pepsi 300, BGN Race (April 12); Swing into Spring! (April 18-20); Nashville's Earth Day Festival (April 19); Spring Art Hop (April 19); Eggstravaganzoo (Nashville Zoo introduction to Spring; April 19); 21st Annual Music City Square Dance Festival (April 25-26); Celebrate Air & Space (Adventure Science Center; April 26); Country Music Marathon and 1/2 Marathon (April 26); 20th Annual Main Street Festival (April 26-27); Nashville Film Festival (April 29-May 4)

Sports Teams: Tennessee Titans (football); Nashville Predators (ice hockey)

Museums: Adventure Science Center; the Agricultural Museum; the Cheekwood Botanical Garden and Museum of Art; the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum; the Cumberland Science Museum; the Grand Ole Opry Museum; Lane Motor Museum; the Music Valley Wax Museum; Nashville Toy Museum; the Tennessee State Museum; Willie Nelson and Friends Showcase Museum

Places to visit: the Grand Ole Opry House; the State Capitol (on the grounds of which is the tomb of President James K. Polk); the Georgian-style Governor's Mansion; Belle Meade Mansion; the Hermitage (the home of President Andrew Jackson); Travellers Rest (the home of John Overton, Jackson's law partner); Tulip Grove (the home of Andrew Donelson, Jackson's private secretary); Fort Nashborough (a replica of the city's original settlement); the Parthenon (the house of the Art Museum; named and modeled after the Parthenon, the Doric temple built for the goddess Athena in the 5th century BC in Athens, Greece); Ryman Auditorium (the home of the Grand Ole Opry from 1943 to 1974); Frist Center for the Visual Arts; Nashville Farmers Market; Nashville Zoo

Tallest Building: BellSouth Tower (617 feet, 33 stories)

History: The Nashville area, used as a hunting ground by Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Shawnee Indians, attracted French fur traders, who about 1710 established a trading post, which became known as French Lick. In 1779, a group of pioneers, some from North Carolina, built Fort Nashborough, named for the American Revolution general Francis Nash. They soon drew up a document for self-government--the Cumberland Compact of 1780. In 1784 the community was renamed Nashville. Situated at the northern terminus of the Natchez Trace, then a major commercial road, Nashville was, by the early 19th century, a bustling river port known for shipping cotton. In 1843 the city was made the permanent state capital, and in the 1850s it became a rail center.

Early in the American Civil War, Nashville was a strategic military post for the Confederacy, but in 1862 the city was captured by Union troops. The Confederates made an unsuccessful attempt to retake the city in the Battle of Nashville (December 1864). After the Civil War, Nashville grew as a trade center, and in the 1920s it became a center of country-and-western music (the Grand Ole Opry radio broadcasts from Nashville have been on the air since 1925). Beginning in the 1930s the city's industrial development was spurred by the availability of cheap electric power produced by the Tennessee Valley Authority

Birthplace of: musician Gregg Allman (1947); U.S. Supreme Court justice Harry Blackmun (1908); civil rights leader Julian Bond (1940); singer/actress Rita Coolidge (1945); poet Randall Jarrell (1914); actress Annie Potts (1952); astronomer Harlow Shapley (1885); singer Kitty Wells (1919); actress Reese Witherspoon (1976)


Obituaries in March

Amies, Sir Hardy, 93, British fashion designer and dressmaker by appointment to Queen Elizabeth II; Langford, England, Mar. 5, 2003.

Brakhage, Stan, 70, prolific and influential avant-garde filmmaker; Victoria, British Columbia (Canada), Mar. 9, 2003.

Buchholz, Horst, 69, German actor who made his mark in Hollywood in such films as The Magnificent Seven (1960) and One, Two, Three (1961); Berlin, Germany, Mar. 3, 2003.

Coors, Joseph, 85, beer company magnate and financial backer of conservative political causes; Rancho Mirage, CA, Mar. 15, 2003.

Fast, Howard, 88, prolific author best known for such populist historical novels as Citizen Tom Paine (1943), Freedom Road (1944) and Spartacus (1961); Old Greenwich, CT, Mar. 12, 2003.

Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 76, academic, social policy formulator, diplomat and four-term Democratic senator from New York (1977-2001); Washington, DC, Mar. 26, 2003.


The tallest free-standing tower in the world is the CN Tower in Toronto, with a height of 1,815 feet.

SPECIAL FEATURE: An Overview of the Department of Homeland Security

By Erik Gopel

The creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) represents the most significant reorganization of the United States government in over fifty years, since President Truman combined the War and Navy departments between 1947 and 1949 to form the Department of Defense. The new Department of Homeland Security comprises 22 pre-existing federal agencies from various executive departments, some of them transformed into brand new agencies, such as the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services. Overall, the DHS employs about 170,000 people and is currently the third largest department in the executive office; only the departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs are larger. The DHS is the first new cabinet-level department since the Veterans Administration became the Department of Veterans Affairs in 1989. The Secretary of Homeland Security is former Pennsylvania governor Tom Ridge, and the Deputy Secretary is former Secretary of the Navy Gordon England.

The mission of the DHS is to ensure the domestic security of the United States. Its main objectives are to prevent new terrorist acts in the United States, decrease the nation's vulnerability to such attacks, and minimize the consequences should future attacks occur. This requires a concerted effort of more than 22 various agencies whose functions range from strengthened border patrols and stricter immigration procedures to tightened airport security and critical infrastructure protection. The department will have access to "raw intelligence" collected by the FBI, CIA, and NSA, and will use this information to alert the administration, safety officials, and, when necessary, the public. A critical function of the department is its interaction and coordination with state and local authorities for prevention and emergency response activities and training.

Background and Formation
Conceived in response to the unprecedented terrorist attacks on the U.S. mainland that occurred on September 11, 2001, a preliminary form of the DHS was created by executive order on October 8, 2001. It was known as the Office of Homeland Security and was led by Tom Ridge as Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, a presidential advisory position.

Throughout the summer of 2002, several intelligence-agency whistleblowers testified before Congress, revealing extensive CIA and FBI intelligence failures, and the problematic relations among the various intelligence-gathering agencies. It became apparent to many that a presidential advisory office alone could not handle the enormous job of coordinating all of the agencies engaged in terrorism prevention. As Chairman of the Government Affairs Committee, Senator Joseph Lieberman (D, CT) submitted a proposal in May 2002 to transform the Homeland Security office into an official department of the United States cabinet. President George W. Bush demurred at first, but soon submitted his own proposal, delivering the Homeland Security Bill to Congress on June 18, 2002. A transitional office to oversee the consolidation of the future DHS components was created by an executive order on June 20.

Despite abundant bipartisan support in Congress for creating a homeland security department, lawmakers debated several provisions in the Homeland Security bill, delaying its passage until the very end of the lame-duck session. An initial version of the bill was passed by the House on July 26, 2002, but stalled in the Senate as Democrats protested the absence of any civil service protections for DHS employees. Unlike in most other federal agencies, the President believed that he should have the power to fire and hire DHS employees at will, maintaining that delays in these processes could compromise national security. Democrats and the labor lobby protested strongly, and the bill was amended after the November midterm election to provide for a mediation board that would arbitrate labor disputes. However, the Secretary of the department still retained the power to overrule these mediated decisions.

In the final hours its legislation, certain special-interest provisions were inserted. These granted limitations on vaccine liabilities to pharmaceutical companies, offered certain protections against defective-product lawsuits, and indemnified contractors that supplied security equipment for the Transportation Security Administration (TSA).

Another intensely debated aspect of the Homeland Security bill involved whistleblower protections for DHS employees, which were initially excluded. Since whistleblowers had revealed the procedural lapses in the intelligence community that purportedly failed to detect the September 11 attacks, some in Congress felt that such protections were crucial to security. A provision for this protection in compliance with the 1989 Whistleblowers Protection Act was eventually included.

The Homeland Security Act that created the department was passed by the House of Representatives on November 13 and by the Senate on November 18. President Bush signed the bill into law November 25. Tom Ridge was confirmed by the Senate as the cabinet-level Secretary of the DHS on January 22, 2003, and sworn in two days later. The department began operations on January 24, with headquarters in the Nebraska Avenue Center, a Navy facility in northwest Washington, D.C. An amendment to strike seven contested special-interest provisions from the bill was passed as part of an omnibus spending bill in February 2003.

The 2004 fiscal year omnibus spending bill passed in February 2003 allocated a sum of $36 billion for the entire DHS budget. This is less than two percent of the $2.2 trillion federal budget for 2003. While it is close to the sum requested by the administration, many in congress have expressed a desire to supplement this budget in the coming months. Border security is receiving the most funds--about $18 billion, and the TSA will get $4.8 billion. Enhancements to increase the budget are being debated.

As mandated by the Homeland Security Act, the integration of the various federal agencies into the DHS must be completed within one year from the time the department was established; most of these transitions, however, were already completed by March 1, 2003. The Department of Homeland Security has five major divisions, classified in the DHS organization plan as directorates, each headed by an Under Secretary. The agencies that fall within these directorates are listed below with their former departmental locations, along with the function each serves in its domestic security capacity.

Border and Transportation Security, Undersecretary: Asa Hutchinson
Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (Treasury, Justice, Agriculture) combines the border patrol functions of the U.S. Customs Service, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
The Federal Protective Service (The Federal Protective Service): security for federal facilities.
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) (Transportation): created in Nov. 2001, the TSA oversees all security at nation's airports.
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (Treasury): law enforcement training for federal government. Also works with state and local authorities.
Office of Domestic Preparedness (Justice): created in 1998, agency works with state and local officials to respond to and mitigate effects of domestic terrorism.

Emergency Preparedness and Response, Undersecretary: Mike Brown
Federal Emergency Management Agency (Independent): plans for and responds to disasters, natural and manmade.
Strategic National Stockpile (Health and Human Services): provides availability and rapid circulation of emergency medical supplies, such as vaccines.
National Disaster Medical System (Health and Human Services): coordinates national health care in event of disasters; supports care of U.S. casualties evacuated home.
Nuclear Incident Response Team (Energy): responds to nuclear accidents and emergencies.
Domestic Preparedness Support Teams (Justice): aid in responding to incidents involving biological and chemical weapons.
National Domestic Preparedness Office (Justice; part of FBI): coordinates training and equipment for incidents involving conventional and non-conventional weapons.

Science and Technology, not yet confirmed <
CBRN Countermeasures Programs (Energy): prevents importation of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons.
Environmental Measurements Laboratory (Energy): Prevents, protects, and responds to nuclear and radiological events.
National BW Defense Analysis Center (Defense): a new biological warfare prevention program.
Plum Island Animal Disease Center (Agriculture): research and prevention of foreign animal diseases.

Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection, not yet confirmed
Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office (Commerce): assesses threats to critical infrastructures.
Federal Computer Incident Response Center (General Services Admin.): federal computer systems and security facility.
National Communications System (Defense): maintains and improves communications between critical federal agencies.
National Infrastructure Protection Center (Justice; part of FBI): protects government and private sector computer infrastructures from criminal activity.
Energy Security and Assurance Program (Energy): research and prevention of energy supply disruptions.

Management, Undersecretary: Janet Hale (Responsible for administration of DHS. No agencies were transferred here)

Independent Agencies
The following agencies do not fall within the five directorates. The Coast Guard and Secret Service report directly to Secretary Ridge. The Bureau of Immigration and Citizenship reports to Under Secretary Gordon England.

Coast Guard (Transportation): port and shore security, drug interdiction, and maritime law.
Secret Service (Treasury): protects President, Vice President, and heads of state, their families and residences. Investigation and enforcement of laws pertaining to counterfeiting and financial crimes.
Bureau of Immigration and Citizenship (Justice; part of INS): assumes as a separate bureau the immigration, naturalization, and asylum petition processes of the INS.

Two Agencies
Two new agencies that are among the most visible in the department's terrorism prevention program are the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and the Bureau of Immigration and Citizenship. The TSA was originally created by the Aviation and Transportation Security Act in November 2001 to federalize the passenger and baggage-screening operators at the nation's 429 commercial airports. At the time, it was assigned to the Department of Transportation.

Previously, private security firms had been responsible for screening passengers and their luggage. Investigations following the 9/11 terrorist attacks revealed that many of those security workers had criminal backgrounds or were unqualified for the position. The TSA assumed complete control, hired approximately 54,000 workers, and nearly doubled the salaries for screeners. Random security inspections of both passengers and baggage are now routine at airports, and a note card placed inside luggage indicating an inspection has become commonplace. The head of the TSA, Under Secretary Admiral James M. Loy, was confirmed in November 2002. While legislation capped the number of employees at 45,000, the TSA hired about 9,000 more than the cap. After reviewing the effectiveness of the new workforce, Admiral Loy announced at the end of March that 3,000 of these employees, mostly temporary workers, would be let go in early April.

The reorganization that created the DHS also dissolved the INS, and absorbed most of its functions into several new agencies in the DHS. The most notable is the Bureau of Immigration and Citizenship, which handles all adjudications and benefits for immigration, asylum, and refugee petitions, as well as naturalization.

Public Awareness (The Ready Campaign)
Another important dimension of the Homeland Security department is its public awareness campaign. In partnership with The Advertising Council and the Sloan Foundation, the DHS launched a national public service advertising campaign aimed at educating American citizens in how to prepare for and respond to terrorist attacks. The ad campaign disseminated its message through radio, television, and print media. A website devoted to educating the public on these matters ( was also launched. It includes visual instructions on building survival kits for various scenarios, and information on the different types of threats, such as incidents involving chemical, biological, and radiological weapons.

Another important tool in the department's public awareness program is the Homeland Security Advisory System. This is a color-coded alert system with five distinct levels that indicates the degree of risk for possible terrorist attacks in the U.S. The levels are, from lowest to highest, Low (Green), Guarded (Blue), Elevated (Yellow), High (Orange), and Severe (Red).

Homeland Security Council
In addition to the new department, President Bush, in March 2002, created the Homeland Security Council (HSC). Similar to the National Security Council, this body oversees and ensures all domestic security activities across the spectrum of federal agencies inside and outside the DHS. The members of the council include the President, the Vice President, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Transportation, the Director of FEMA, the Director of the FBI, the Director of the CIA, and the DHS Secretary. It is this body that determines the threat level measured by the color-coded, five-tiered Homeland Security Advisory System.

Security in Time of War: Operation Liberty Shield
The impending U.S.-led war with Iraq brought homeland security efforts to center stage in the winter of 2002-03. Operation Liberty Shield, a broad, multi-faceted national security plan, was implemented March 17, 2003, following President Bush's exile ultimatum delivered to Iraqi President Saddam Hussein two days before the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq began on March 19. Acting upon the recommendation of the HSC, Secretary Tom Ridge raised the Threat Level from the Elevated security risk (yellow) to High security risk (orange), only the third time since September 11, 2001, that the nation has been at orange alert. The operation, a prevention and response system, includes a significant number of additional security measures such as:
- Increased Coast Guard patrols and maritime restrictions
- Increased border surveillance
- Immigration asylum restrictions
- Airspace restrictions above Washington, D.C. and New York City, and several other areas.
- Increased airport security
- Increased rail and road security
- Monitoring of suspected terrorists and individuals accused of aiding terrorism
- Interviewing Iraqi nationals
- Increased security at petroleum refineries, chemical facilities, nuclear reactors, bridges, tunnels, and electricity grids.
- Increased internet intelligence work and security of important government networks
- Increased biological surveillance and food security positioning of emergency response teams from EPA, USDA

As part of this operation, the federal government will detain all people residing in the United States who are seeking political asylum and are from one of the 34 countries that are known to have contained al-Qaeda operatives. The government will also interview about 10,000 of the 131,000 Iraqis who immigrated to the United States since the end of the Gulf War in 1991.

Civil Liberties
The importance of domestic security precautions notwithstanding, many have argued that the federal government's new counter terrorism measures may be encroaching on the civil liberties of Americans, and that prosecuting security may indeed make the situation more dangerous. At issue are the rights of probable cause, right to privacy, and freedom of information. This affects both U.S. citizens and non-citizens to varying degrees. Both the Homeland Security Act, and the USA Patriot Act passed the previous year, has granted broader surveillance powers to the federal government with respect to wiretapping and monitoring Internet and e-mail usage. The government may also monitor religious groups and individuals if suspected of terrorism, search and seize materials from individuals without probable cause, and restrict access to materials normally under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

This applies even more to immigrants. The Bureau of Immigration and Citizenship has implemented a new immigrant tracking system called Special Registration. It compels all men and women above the age of 16, who are from 34 countries listed as possible areas of terrorist activity, to register with their local INS office or face arrest and possible deportation. Allegedly, many of these immigrants have not been allowed access to legal counsel during registration, and many individuals suspected of having terrorist connections may be detained indefinitely. The government is also allowed to listen in on conversations between detainees and their legal counsel. Some view the new government powers in immigration as violations of the right to due process granted by the Fifth Amendment.


Avoid Clumsy Kisses - Lean Right

Some couples gave dirty looks when they noticed Onur Gunturkun, a professor of biopsychology at Ruhr University in Bochum, Germany, watching them kiss. Little did they know, Gunturkun was simply carrying out a study on "Adult persistence of Head-Turning Asymmetry," the results of which were published in the February 13, 2003 issue of Nature.

Gunturkun observed more than 124 couples osculating (kissing) in public spaces such as airports and railway stations. To avoid an awkward bumping of noses, kissing couples generally tilt their heads in the same direction-that is, to the right or left, from the perspective of each individual. Of the pairs studied by Gunturkun, 80 (64.5%) tilted their heads to the right to kiss, while 44 (33.5%) engaged in left-leaning lip locking. This evidence suggests that kissers prefer tilting their heads to the right at a 2:1 ratio over tilting to the left.

Gunturkun only took note of each couple's directional preference at the first point of lip contact, disregarding any changes in head direction that occurred during "instances of multiple kissing." Also, to be included in the study, a kissing couple had to meet stringent criteria. They had to be facing each other; their hands needed to be free (as hand-held objects could contribute to a side preference); and their choice of direction had to be obvious to the observer. The data collection took over two years, because Gunturkun tended to carry out his research when traveling. As he explained to Bloomberg News, "I was sitting in the O'Hare airport for five hours with nothing to do, and this came to me. It was a good thing to do."

Although Gunturkun's work may portray him as a romantic, he told the New York Times, "I was never interested to study kissing because of kissing. I wanted to understand the rules that transform our brains into asymmetrically functioning entities," meaning that the brain and thus, the body, do not work the same on both sides. For example, he presents his study in terms of the fact that babies often turn their heads to the right, rather than to the left, during the final weeks of gestation and through the first six months after birth. Gunturkun asserts that his study proves this preference persists into adulthood.

He also suggests an association between head-turning preference and other instances in which one side of the body dominates. In fact, preferential use of the right foot, eye, and ear all occur at a 2:1 ratio. Though right-handedness occurs at the much higher rate of 8:1, social pressures are likely to persuade lefties to use their right hands, thus skewing our ability to measure the naturally-occurring ratio.

Gunturkun notes that his research fails to account for the possibility that left-leaning kissers may be subject to social pressures as well. Enough clumsy kisses with right-leaning people could reasonably persuade a lefty to join the majority.


Two countries joined the United Nations in 2002 -- newly founded East Timor, and longtime holdout Switzerland.

CHRONOLOGY - Events of March 2003


Senate Ratifies Nuclear Agreement With Russia -The U.S. Senate, Mar. 6, approved, 95-0, the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty signed in 2002 by Pres. George W. Bush and Pres. Vladimir Putin of Russia. The treaty required the 2 countries to reduce the number of their deployed nuclear warheads to between 1,700 and 2,200 by 2012. Each country now had about 6,000 warheads deployed. Russia's parliament had not yet ratified the treaty.

Drilling for Oil in Wildlife Refuge Rejected Again - Consistent with previous votes, the Senate Mar. 19 rejected a proposal supported by the Bush administration to drill for oil in the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge. The refuge was thought to contain huge oil reserves, but conservationists argued that drilling would degrade the wilderness that was home to wildlife herds. Supporters of drilling had thought that the war with Iraq might prompt the Senate to reverse its previous opposition. Eight Republicans went against the administration.

Senate Deals Setback to Bush Tax Cut Plan - The tax-cut proposal put forth by Pres. George W. Bush - the centerpiece of his economic-recovery program - lost ground in the Senate, Mar. 25. A day earlier, on Mar. 24, the administration said it would ask Congress for $74.7 billion to pay for the war in Iraq, plus additional funds for foreign aid and domestic security. Some Senators who had previously supported the tax-cut plan were apparently concerned by the cost of the war and supported an amendment Mar. 25 to the 2004 fiscal year tax and spending guidelines to reduce the 10-year, $726 billion tax-cut package to $350 billion. The amendment carried, 51-48, with 3 Republicans in the majority. A Senate-House conference committee could still restore the tax-cut package to something much closer to what the President proposed.

4 Air Force Academy Officers Fired in Rape Scandal - The Air Force announced Mar. 25 that it was replacing the 4 top officers at the U.S. Air Force Academy as a result of allegations by more than 50 women cadets and former cadets that they had been raped during the past decade. The women claimed that the academy failed to protect them from assault and had in fact investigated those filing complaints. The officers removed included the superintendent of cadets, Gen. John Dallager. An investigation was continuing.


Diplomacy Fails to Prevent Invasion of Iraq - Diplomatic efforts to continue inspections as a means of obtaining Iraqi compliance and averting military action proved unsuccessful. One of the chief inspectors, Hans Blix, reported to the United Nations Mar. 1 that Iraq, while not proven to be in violation of its obligations to divest itself of weapons of mass destruction, had not fully cooperated witjh inspectors. As directed by the U.N. weapons inspectors, Iraq Mar. 1 did begin to destroy an arsenal of more than 100 al-Samoud 2 missiles, whose range exceeded the 150-km (93 mi) U.N.-imposed limit. The Arab League Mar. 1 opposed a U.S. attack on Iraq and called for a peaceful settlement. Turkey's parliament Mar. 1 refused to permit the stationing of 62,000 troops on its soil. Iraqi dissident groups, meeting in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq, called Mar. 1 for a transition to a parliamentary system of government.

Blix said Mar. 5 that he wanted more time for inspections. France, Russia, and Germany indicated the same day that they would oppose a draft resolution submitted to the U.N. Security Council by the United States, Britain, and Spain declaring that Iraq had missed its last chance to disarm peacefully. China, Mar. 6, supported their position. Sec. of State Colin Powell said, Mar. 7, that if diplomatic efforts failed, the United States would lead a coalition of willing nations that would disarm Iraq with or without U.N. authority.

The 3 sponsors of the draft resolution proposed a compromise Mar. 7, setting a Mar. 17 deadline for Iraq to demonstrate cooperation in disarming, but France indicated it would veto such a resolution. Bush, Prime Minister Tony Blair of Great Britain, and Premier Jose Maria Aznar of Spain met in the Azores Islands Mar. 16 and declared that their diplomatic efforts to avert war would end the next day. On Mar. 17, when it was apparent that the Security Council would not approve their resolution, the 3 co-sponsors withdrew it. Bush, the same day, warned that Pres. Saddam Hussein and his sons must leave Iraq within 48 hours, an ultimatum that Hussein rejected. U.N. Secretary Gen. Kofi Annan Mar. 17 ordered all U.N. personnel, including weapons inspectors, to evacuate Iraq.

The U.S. State Dept. Mar. 18 listed 30 countries that were members of the "coalition of the willing" who supported military intervention. Fifteen other countries had asked not to be named. Only 3 countries in the coalition, the United States (225,000), Britain (45,000), and Australia (2,000) had provided troops. Canada had announced Mar. 17 that it would not participate in the war. Turkey's parliament Mar. 20 agreed to allow U.S. planes to cross Turkish airspace.

Mastermind of Sept. 11 Attacks Seized in Pakistan - On Mar. 1, Pakistani counter-terrorism officials seized Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who was believed to be the 3d-ranking member of al-Qaeda and the principal planner of the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks on the United States. The United States had indicted him in 1995 in connection with a failed plot to bomb up to 12 airplanes over the Pacific Ocean. The FBI may have been instrumental in the seizure of Mohammed and 2 other men in Rawalpindi Mar. 1. According to an indictment in another case, one of the others arrested, Mustafa Ahmed al-Hawsawi, had wired money from the United Arab Emirates to the Sept. 11 hijackers.

Tensions With North Korea Remain High - Four North Korean fighter planes Mar. 2 intercepted a U.S. surveillance plane over the Sea of Japan, in international waters. The North Koreans followed the U.S. plane for 22 minutes, approaching as close as 50 feet, before returning home. Pres. George W. Bush called for countries in the region to pursue diplomacy aimed at dealing with North Korea's resumption of a nuclear program. On Mar. 5, a number of Democratic Party leaders, including former secretaries of state and defense Madeleine Albright and William Perry, urged the administration to negotiate directly with North Korea, which it appeared reluctant to do. On Mar. 10, North Korea test-fired a 2d ground-to-ship missile over the Sea of Japan.

Bombings in Philippines Blamed on Terrorists - Two bombings on the Philippines island of Mindanao on Mar. 4 were blamed on Islamic separatists. One explosion killed 21, including an American Baptist missionary, and injured 150. The 2d claimed one life and injured 3. The Philippine military said Mar. 14 that it had killed almost 200 separatists in 3 days of fighting on Mindanao.

Under Pressure, Palestinians Name a Prime Minister - The Palestinian Legislative Council Mar. 10 created the position of prime minister, and gave the office control over internal affairs. However, peace talks with Israel would remain under control of Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat. The latter had already said, Mar. 6, that he would appoint his ally Mahmoud Abbas as prime minister. Abbas had helped negotiate the 1993 Oslo peace agreement with Israel. Prime Minister Ariel Sharon of Israel had said he would no longer have anything to do with Arafat.

On Mar. 5, a Palestinian suicide bomber killed himself and 15 others on a bus in Haifa. On Mar. 6, Israeli forces killed 11 Palestinians and wounded more than 100 in an attack on a refugee camp. The Israelis, firing from 2 gunships, killed a Hamas leader and 3 bodyguards in a vehicle, Mar. 8. Israelis killed 10 Palestinians in the West Bank Mar. 13 and 14. On Mar. 16, an Israeli army bulldozer ran over and killed an American woman who sought to prevent it from destroying a Palestinian home. A suicide bomber Mar. 30 killed himself and wounded three dozen others in an attack outside a café in Netanya.

Premier of Serbia Assassinated - Premier Zoran Djindjic of Serbia died Mar. 12 after being struck by 2 bullets fired by assassins. Serbian leaders blamed the Zemun clan, an organized crime group. Its leader, Milorad Lukovic, had been angered by the premier's cooperation with the U.N. war crimes tribunal and his support for government reforms. Sec. of State Colin Powell praised Djindjic, citing his "campaign to combat organized crime, which threatens every institution in Serbian society." Police Mar. 13 reported that 40 arrests had been made. On Mar. 18, the Serbian parliament approved Zoran Zivkovic as Djindjic's successor.

War-torn Ivory Coast Installs New Premier - Ivory Coast, torn by civil war for 6 months, got a new premier, Seydou Diarra, Mar. 10. The French, the country's former colonial rulers, had brokered an agreement that sought to arrange for a sharing of power among the government, opposition parties, and 3 rebel factions. A new cabinet was introduced Mar. 13. Some 3,000 people had died during the civil war. More than 100 died in a massacre in Bangolo Mar. 7.

Turkey Gets New Premier at Critical Moment - Even while controversy was swirling around Turkey's role in the prospective war in Iraq, the country got a new premier. Recep Tayyip Erdogan, chairman of the ruling party, was chosen by parliament Mar. 14 to succeed Abdullah Gul. Although Erdogan's Justice and Development Party had won the November 2002 election, he was not a member of parliament and thus ineligible to be premier. However, he had just won a seat in a by-election. Gul was named foreign minister in the new cabinet.

U.S. and British Forces Invade Iraq - The U.S.-led military offensive aimed at ousting the regime of Pres. Saddam Hussein of Iraq got underway Mar.19. The first strike occurred after dark Mar. 19, when about 40 Tomahawk cruise missiles descended on 3 targets in Baghdad, the capital, in response to intelligence information that Hussein was at a meeting with other top Iraqi leaders. Iraq fired 3 missiles at U.S. bases in Kuwait; one landed harmlessly, and 2 were knocked down by U.S. Patriot missiles. In a televised address Mar. 19, Pres. George W. Bush announced the onset of the military campaign, named Operation Iraqi Freedom.

In the first ground combat, Mar. 20, U.S. forces destroyed 2 Iraqi armored personnel carriers inside Kuwait. Units of the U.S. Army's 3d Infantry Division and Marine lst Expeditionary Force entered Iraq after dark Mar. 20. The division moved north toward Baghdad, while U.S. and British marines turned northeast toward Basra, Iraq's 2d city. In an aerial bombardment, the principal feature of what the Pentagon dubbed its "shock and awe" campaign, some 1,300 missiles and bombs rained down on military targets in Baghdad after dark on Mar. 21. The bombardment, which continued in succeeding days, was captured on live television, as news channels followed the war on a continuing basis, aided by reports from "embedded" journalists traveling with the troops

A U.S. supply vehicle, on the route to Baghdad, made a wrong turn in Nasiriyah Mar. 22, and 7 Americans were believed killed and 5, including a woman, were captured. Some U.S. soldiers were believed to have been executed after having been captured alive. Nine marines were killed in Nasiriyah Mar. 23. Marines found 3,000 chemical warfare suits and masks at a hospital in Nasiriyah Mar. 25. Third Infantry soldiers were within 50 miles of Baghdad by Mar. 24, but a sandstorm impeded progress Mar. 25 and 26. Hussein, on Iraqi television Mar. 24, appealed to his forces to hold firm against the coalition. The Iraqis shot down an Apache helicopter Mar. 24 and captured 2 U.S. pilots. The 7th Cavalry reportedly killed 1,000 Iraqis near Najav, another city leading to Baghdad, Mar. 25-26. The Pentagon reported Mar. 26 that 4,000 Iraqis had been taken prisoner.

British forces said Mar. 25 that they had captured the Gulf port city of Umm Qasr, but Basra, nearby, had not fallen, and its million residents were reported in desperate need of water. U.S. forces Mar. 21 had seized major oil fields near Basra.

More than 1,000 members of the U.S. 173rd Airborne Brigade parachuted into northern Iraq, Mar. 26, with the objective of uniting with anti-Hussein Kurds who enjoyed a semiautonomous status. The U.S. presence was apparently also designed to discourage Turkey, which was concerned about a Kurdish uprising that might spread to its own Kurdish population, from sending troops into northern Iraq. Bush, Mar. 23, had warned Turkey not to intervene.

The number of Iraqi military and civilian casualties was difficult to determine. The coalition forces, through Mar. 29, had suffered the following casualties: for the U.S., 42 dead, 7 captured and 17 missing, while the British had 25 dead. Some coalition deaths were due to accidents, friendly fire, or other causes not attributable to enemy fire. Eight British soldiers and 4 U.S. marines died Mar. 21 in a helicopter crash in Kuwait. Six British soldiers and one U.S. serviceman died Mar. 22 when 2 copters collided. A U.S. missile Mar. 23 mistakenly shot down a British fighter jet, killing the 2-man crew. A U.S. soldier was arrested Mar. 23 after he allegedly threw grenades into 3 U.S. officers' tents in Kuwait; 14 soldiers were wounded, 2 fatally. Among civilian casualties, an American bomb Mar. 24 hit a bus carrying mostly Syrians out of Iraq, killing 5 and wounding 10. Another bomb or missile, possibly of U.S. origin, killed 17 civilians in Baghdad, Mar. 26. Coalition forces stated that they did not target civilians and were seeking to minimize civilian casualties through precision bombing.

Iraqi resistance, particularly by "fedayeen" paramilitary forces, was often heavy, and stretched-out supply lines came under frequent attacks, leading to what some observers characterized as delays in the progress of coalition forces toward entering Baghdad. Iraq introduced a new tactic Mar. 29: A suicide bomber blew up his taxi and killed 4 U.S. soldiers near Najaf. On Mar. 30 an Iraqi spokesman said that 4,000 volunteers from 23 countries were ready to carry out suicide attacks. U.S. and British officials complained that Iraqi forces were resorting to tactics that violated military codes of conduct, such as disguising themselves in civilian clothes, pretending to surrender and then fighting, forcing civilians to act as human shields, and threatening them with death to prevent them from welcoming or cooperating with coalition forces.

Britain's Blair Weathers Political Storm Over Iraq - Prime Minister Tony Blair, a strong advocate of military intervention in Iraq, won the support of Parliament for the war, Mar. 18, when the House of Commons voted 412-149 to use "all means necessary" against Hussein. Clare Short, the cabinet secretary for international development, who on Mar. 9 had threatened to resign if British troops invaded Iraq without a 2d U.N. resolution authorizing force, decided to stay on. However, Robin Cook, leader of Commons, resigned in protest, Mar. 17. Initial polls taken after war began showed a narrow majority of the British supporting Blair's position; however, polls in many other countries showed large majorities opposed to war, and there demonstrations in major cities.


Kidnapped Girl Found Alive in Utah - Elizabeth Smart, 15, who had been abducted from her home in Salt Lake City, Utah, in June 2002 was found alive on Mar. 12. She was in the custody of Brian Mitchell, a panhandler and self-described prophet, and his wife, Wanda Barzee, in the nearby town of Sandy. Mitchell had worked for one day at the Smart home in November 2001. A polygamist, he had been excommunicated from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The girl's rescue, following reports from people who had seen Mitchell linked to the abduction in a television report, raised question about police competence. On Mar. 18, charges were filed against Mitchell and Barzee.

Mysterious Illness Seen as World-wide Threat - A strange new illness that caused pneumonia-like symptoms became a cause for alarm. On Mar. 15, the World Health Organization issued an alert on what it called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which had spread from Asia to Europe and North America. By Mar. 27, 1,408 people in 14 countries had been stricken, and 53 had died, including 34 in China. The condition, characterized by high fever, dry cough, and difficult breathing, was thought to spread by sneezes and coughs. Researchers came up with 2 different viruses that might be the cause.

Antiabortion Activist Found Guilty of Murder - James Kopp, an opponent of abortion, was found guilty of 2d-degree murder Mar. 18 in the shooting death of Dr. Barnett Slepian in 1998. Admitting the crime in 2002, Kopp said he sought only to wound Slepian in order to prevent him from carrying out abortions. Kopp had waived a jury trial, and was found guilty by Judge Michael D'Amico in Erie County (NY) Court.

Hundreds Missing in Bolivia Landslide - A landslide Mar. 31 buried about 150 houses in the mining town of Chima in northern Bolivia. The toll of the disaster was not known, but several dozen people reportedly were missing.


'Chicago' Named Best Movie of 2002 - Chicago, a rousing musical set in the1920s, was named Mar. 23 as the best film of 2002 by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. The academy's annual awards ceremony in Hollywood was less flamboyant than usual because of the onset of the war against Iraq. In all, Chicago won 6 Oscars. Adrien Brody was named best actor for The Pianist, and Nicole Kidman best actress for The Hours. Roman Polanski was voted best director for The Pianist. Below is a list of the winners:

  • Best Picture: CHICAGO
  • Best Director: Roman Polanski for THE PIANIST
  • Best Actress: Nicole Kidman for THE HOURS
  • Best Actor: Adrien Brody for THE PIANIST
  • Best Supporting Actress: Catherine Zeta-Jones for CHICAGO
  • Best Supporting Actor: Chris Cooper for ADAPTATION
  • Best Animated Feature Film: SPIRITED AWAY
  • Best Adapted Screenplay: THE PIANIST
  • Best Original Screenplay: TALK TO HER
  • Best Foreign-Language Film: NOWHERE IN AFRICA (Germany)
  • Achievement in Art Direction: CHICAGO
  • Achievement in Cinematography: ROAD TO PERDITION
  • Achievement in Costume Design: CHICAGO
  • Best Documentary Feature: BOWLING FOR COLUMBINE
  • Best Documentary Short Subject: TWIN TOWERS
  • Best Film Editing: CHICAGO
  • Achievement in Makeup: FRIDA
  • Best Original Score: FRIDA
  • Original Song: "Lose Yourself" from 8 MILE (Eminem)
  • Best Animated Short Film: THE CHUBBCHUBBS!
  • Achievement in Sound: CHICAGO
  • Achievement in Sound Editing: THE LORD OF THE RINGS: THE TWO TOWERS
  • Honorary Award: Peter O'Toole

Sports Highlights

Robert Sorlie, of Norway, won his 1st Iditarod sled dog race, Mar. 13, in only his 2nd time racing the event (he finished 9th in 2002). The 1,100-mile course from Anchorage to Nome, AK , had to be rerouted several times due to lack of snow. Some 400 miles of trail were affected. Sorlie was the 1st non-American winner in race history. His winning time was 9 days, 15 hours, 47 minutes.

Russia's Evgeny Plushenko won his 2nd world title at the World Figure Skating Championships in Washington, DC, on Mar. 28. American Tim Goebel took the silver, followed by Japan's Takeshi Honda, with the bronze. In the women's final Mar. 29, Michelle Kwan won her 5th World Figure Skating Championship. Elena Sokolova, of Russia, was 2nd and Fumie Suguri, of Japan, finished 3rd.

In the 1st LPGA major tournament of 2003, France's Patricia Meunier-Lebouc defeated Sweden's Annika Sorenstam by a stroke on Mar. 31, to take the Kraft Nabisco Championship in Rancho Mirage, CA.

Davis Love III shot a final-round 64 to win The Players Championship at Ponte Vedra Beach, FL, by 6 strokes over Jay Haas on Sunday, Mar. 31.


An average beer has about 150 calories, while the average cola has about 160.


- Kevin Seabrooke

Hooters Air Takes Wing(s) - The Hooters restaurant chain, known as much for the short shorts and tight T-shirts of its "Hooters Girls" wait staff as it is for its Buffalo-style chicken wings, has taken on another kind of wing. Hooters Air One, a Boeing 737 painted in the restaurant's signature orange and white took off on March 6. Fitted with 112 leather seats, the airline boasts more leg room and a relaxed atmosphere. Two "Hooters Girls" will be on each flight -in addition to 2 pilots and 3 flight attendants. Initially, the only flights were between Atlanta, GA, and Myrtle Beach, SC, a popular golf resort destination. Flights to Myrtle Beach from Newark, NJ (via Atlanta), were to be added. The Atlanta-based chain, celebrating its 20th anniversary this year, has more than 300 restaurants in 43 states and 10 countries.

Veni, Vidi, Venti - The first free-standing Starbucks store in Arkansas is set to open in May 2003, in Little Rock. That leaves 45 states down, with only 5 to go, for the Seattle-based Starbucks Corp. (whose largest coffee cup size is known as a "venti"). While there are more than 6,200 Starbucks coffee shops worldwide, there are still no Starbucks in Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota or West Virginia. For those five states, it seems only a matter of time. The company plans to open 1,200 new stores in 2003.

NOTED PERSONALITIES: Original Names of Selected Entertainers

ALAN ALDA: Alphonso D'Abruzzo
WOODY ALLEN: Allen Konigsberg
EVE ARDEN: Eunice Quedens
FRED ASTAIRE: Frederick Austerlitz
BABYFACE: Kenneth Edmonds
ANNE BANCROFT: Anna Maria Italiano
THE BIG BOPPER: Jiles Perry "J.P." Richardson
BONO (VOX): Paul Hewson
DAVID BOWIE: David Robert Jones
BOY GEORGE: George Alan O'Dowd
CHARLES BRONSON: Charles Buchinski
ALBERT BROOKS: Albert Einstein
MEL BROOKS: Melvin Kaminsky
ELLEN BURSTYN: Edna Gilhooley
NICOLAS CAGE: Nicholas Coppola
MICHAEL CAINE: Maurice Micklewhite
MARIA CALLAS: Maria Kalogeropoulos
JACKIE CHAN: Chan Kwong-Sung
CYD CHARISSE: Tula Finklea
CHER: Cherilyn Sarkisian
ALICE COOPER: Vincent Furnier
TOM CRUISE: Thomas Mapother IV
TONY CURTIS: Bernard Schwartz
BOBBY DARIN: Walden Robert Cassotto
SANDRA DEE: Alexandra Zuck
JOHN DENVER: Henry John Deutschendorf Jr.
BO DEREK: Mary Cathleen Collins
BO DIDDLEY: Elias Bates
TROY DONAHUE: Merle Johnson Jr.
KIRK DOUGLAS: Issur Danielovitch
BOB DYLAN: Robert Zimmerman
ELVIRA: Cassandra Peterson
ENYA: Eithne Ni Bhraonian
JAMIE FARR: Jameel Farah
W.C. FIELDS: William Claude Dukenfield
JODIE FOSTER: Alicia Christian Foster
REDD FOXX: John Sanford
GRETA GARBO: Greta Gustafsson
JOHN GARFIELD: Julius Garfinkle
JUDY GARLAND: Frances Gumm
CARY GRANT: Archibald Leach
HAMMER: Stanley Kirk Burrell
JEAN HARLOW: Harlean Carpentier
SUSAN HAYWARD: Edythe Marriner
RITA HAYWORTH: Margarita Cansino
PEE-WEE HERMAN: Paul Reubenfeld
BILLIE HOLIDAY: Eleanora Fagan
ROCK HUDSON: Roy Scherer Jr. (later Fitzgerald)
ICE CUBE: O'Shea Jackson
ICE-T: Tracy Morrow
BILLY IDOL: William Broad
JAY-Z: Shawn Carter
ELTON JOHN: Reginald Dwight
AL JOLSON: Asa Yoelson
WYNONNA JUDD: Christina Ciminella
BORIS KARLOFF: William Henry Pratt
MICHAEL KEATON: Michael Douglas
BEN KINGSLEY: Krishna Banji
TED KNIGHT: Tadeus Wladyslaw Konopka
VERONICA LAKE: Constance Ockleman
HEDY LAMARR: Hedwig Kiesler
DOROTHY LAMOUR: Mary Leta Dorothy Slaton
MICHAEL LANDON: Eugene Orowitz
MARIO LANZA: Alfredo Cocozza
HUEY LEWIS: Hugh Cregg
JERRY LEWIS: Joseph Levitch
LIL' KIM: Kimberly Denise Jones
PETER LORRE: Laszio Lowenstein
BELA LUGOSI: Bela Ferenc Blasko
KARL MALDEN: Mladen Sekulovich
BARRY MANILOW: Barry Alan Pincus
DEAN MARTIN: Dino Crocetti
MEAT LOAF: Marvin Lee Aday
FREDDIE MERCURY: Frederick Bulsara
ETHEL MERMAN: Ethel Zimmerman
GEORGE MICHAEL: Georgios Panayiotou
MOBY: Richard Melville Hall
MARILYN MONROE: Norma Jean Mortenson (later Baker)
DEMI MOORE: Demetria Guynes
MR. T: Lawrence Tero
NOTORIOUS B.I.G.: Christopher Wallace
MINNIE PEARL: Sarah Ophelia Cannon
STEFANIE POWERS: Stefania Federkiewicz
PRINCE (THE ARTIST): Prince Rogers Nelson
TONY RANDALL: Leonard Rosenberg
BUSTA RHYMES: Trevor Smith Jr.
JOAN RIVERS: Joan Sandra Molinsky
GINGER ROGERS: Virginia McMath
ROY ROGERS: Leonard Franklin Slye
MEG RYAN: Margaret Hyra
SADE: Helen Folsad Abu
SOUPY SALES: Milton Hines
JANE SEYMOUR: Joyce Frankenberg
OMAR SHARIF: Michael Shalhoub
MARTIN SHEEN: Ramon Estevez
TALIA SHIRE: Talia Coppola
"BUFFALO BOB" SMITH: Robert Schmidt
SNOOP DOG: Calvin Broadus
RINGO STARR: Richard Starkey
STING: Gordon Sumner
DONNA SUMMER: La Donna Gaines
ROBERT TAYLOR: Spangler Brugh
DANNY THOMAS: Muzyad Yakhoob, later Amos Jacobs
TINY TIM: Herbert Khaury
TINA TURNER: Annie Mae Bullock
TWIGGY: Leslie Hornby
RUDOLPH VALENTINO: Rudolpho D'Antonguolla
JOHN WAYNE: Marion Morrison
RAQUEL WELCH: Raquel Tejada
STEVIE WONDER: Stevland Morris
NATALIE WOOD: Natasha Nikolaevna Gurdin

Links of the Month

Edward A. Thomas, Editor in Chief

Happy April Fool's Day! The origins of this day are a bit of a mystery, but it has evolved into a day of pranks, some as modest (though maybe not the best idea) as putting salt in the sugar container at home, others dramatic enough to make headlines. There was the time in 1996 when Taco Bell announced that it had bought the famed Liberty Bell from the federal government, and was going to rename it the Taco Liberty Bell. Oh my, the reaction was swift, and many outraged citizens began to call the national site in Philadelphia. Adding to the humor of the day, White House press secretary Mike McCurry, when asked about the sale, responded that the Lincoln Memorial had also been sold, though to a different corporation, and would now be known as the Ford Lincoln Mercury Memorial! For a list of 100 top April Fool's Day hoaxes, visit

I can't wait for the NFL Draft here in New York on April 26-27. Okay, well, people who know me are probably thinking right now that this is my April Fool's Day joke for them. But really folks, there is a lot to learn about football at the official NFL site You can learn about the teams, the players, stats, and about the draft. And for those of you who want to come to New York for the draft, there is a free contest to enter. I'm going to start studying up for this year's office football pool.

Did you know that Benjamin Franklin is credited with the idea of daylight saving (not "savings" as I thought)? The British started implementing DST in 1916, and it was the cause of much confusion. By now people are more used to it. Daylight Savings Time starts in the U.S. on April 6th. The main purpose of DST is to make better use of daylight, and in the process, save energy. To learn everything you ever wanted to know about Daylight Saving Time, visit

Wouldn't it just be nice today to play hooky and go to the zoo. Well, some of you are at work today, and I know that there is no chance that you'll be able to escape and go to see the polar bears at the Toledo (OH) zoo, so why not visit via the cyberworld. At the Discovery Channel you can not only watch a cam of the polar bears, but watch a volcano in Mexico, see a skyscraper under construction, and (you might want to put your sunglasses on now) watch the sun.

For me, one of the highlights of the 75th annual Academy Awards show in March, was the tribute to past winners (in the acting categories), which included nearly 60 actors and actresses, on stage. Gee, it was great to see some old faces including Luise Rainer (93), Karl Malden (90), Olivia De Havilland (86), Jennifer Jones (84), and Teresa Wright (84). My World Almanac was getting a workout that night, checking everyone's ages out. Several days later I checked out a site I've recommended before, the Internet Movie Database, and I was able see all of the movies these stars had been in, some more current than I knew, and saw some wonderful pictures too. And at Classic Movies, you can read about film stars from the "golden era" of filmmaking, with hundreds of links to other sites.

The mysterious website of the month: The Flash Mind Reader:
P.S. I figured it out!

An Update: Remember the Nigerian Spam Scam Contest I mentioned last month? Well, I entered the contest as of April 1st, I am in 12th place with a total of $152.2 million dollars promised, from 24 e-mails. I have a ways to go to catch up to the leader, known as Susu; that person has $3.3285 billion dollars!

© World Almanac Education Group

World Almanac E-Newsletter
Edward A. Thomas, Editor in Chief

Louise Bloomfield, Erik Gopel, Walter Kronenberg, Chris Larson, Bill McGeveran, Kevin Seabrooke and Lori Wiesenfeld

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